Library Selection 6 - AR testosterone-DHT selectivity;Transgenders & Crossdressers

Since October 30th, 2003

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Library Selection 1 - Kruijver et al,2000 and others Abstracts and Free Full Papers
Library Selection 2 - Aphallia & Sissyboys
Library Selection 3 - Transsexual Hormone Therapy (HRT)
Library Selection 4 - Hormones and the primate Brain... humans and non humans... USA studies.
Library Selection 5 - FtM Transsexual, Aphallia & Micropenis
Library Selection 6 - AR testosterone-DHT selectivity; Transgenders and Crossdressers
Library Selection 7 - AR testosterone-DHT selectivity; Torres & Jurberg Hypothesis
Library Selection 8 - SF-1 and DAX-1 papers
Library Selection 9 - Dörner....and the brain sexual differentiation
Library Selection 10 - Imperato_McGinley...and T action for the gender identity masculinization
See here some scientific abstracts from Medline.
Access Medline Abstracts and Papers yourself directly.
See below some wonderful paper abstracts and sometimes FREE FULL PAPERS!.


See here some, in my opinion, the most important studies and results about AR hormone binding and activation, showing the testosterone-DHT different action over AR. That result is very important, because DHT is the important factor to masculinize genitals, and testosterone, to masculinize brains. If they may have a different action, they may give different and divergent results in genital and brain tissues. Also here a paper showing the variation of the hormone action in different tissues AR.
1: Mol Cell Biochem. 2000 Mar;206(1-2):169-75. Related Articles, Links

Differential regulation of testosterone vs. 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone by selective androgen response elements.

Hsiao PW, Thin TH, Lin DL, Chang C.

Department of Pathology, University of Rochester, New York, USA.

There are two major physiological androgens, testosterone (T), and 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), which induce different responses in mammals. These androgens regulate the target gene transcription via binding to and activating the same androgen receptor (AR). The molecular mechanisms that differ between these two very close androgens through the same AR protein to target the distinct genomic responses remain unknown. Using yeast genetic selection, we identified two kinds of androgen response elements (ARE), which could respond differentially to T vs. DHT. These two AREs also show different T- vs. DHT-induced AR transactivation in mammalian Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells in terms of copy number and comparisons with the classic mouse mammary tumor virus ARE. Together, our results suggest that the selective ARE sequence may play an important role in the differential T- vs. DHT-induced AR transactivation.

PMID: 10839207 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


1: Cell Mol Life Sci. 2003 Aug;60(8):1613-22. Related Articles, Links

Recent advances in androgen receptor action.

Lee HJ, Chang C.

Institute of Biotechnology and Department of Life Science, National Dong Hwa University, 974, Hualien, Taiwan.

Androgens, principally testosterone and 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone, play critical roles in the development and growth of the male reproductive and nonreproductive systems. Their biological actions are mediated by the androgen receptor (AR), a ligand-dependent transcription factor, belonging to the nuclear receptor superfamily. These androgen-AR complexes interact with various factors (e.g. coactivators or corepressors) to modulate transcription of androgen target genes via specific DNA sequences. Many lines of evidence have also correlated AR with several mammalian disorders. Finally, recent advances in molecular biology have significantly impacted our knowledge of the role of AR in mammals. The aim of this review is to present recent emerging aspects of AR action.

PMID: 14504652 [PubMed - in process]
1: J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003 Jun;88(6):2784-93. Related Articles, Links
Click here to read 
Evidence for tissue selectivity of the synthetic androgen 7 alpha-methyl-19-nortestosterone in hypogonadal men.

Anderson RA, Wallace AM, Sattar N, Kumar N, Sundaram K.

Medical Research Council Human Reproductive Sciences Unit, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom EH16 4SB. r.a.anderson@hrsu.mrc.ac.uk

The potent synthetic androgen 7 alpha-methyl-19-nortestosterone (MENT) is resistant to 5 alpha-reductase but is a substrate for aromatase. It may therefore offer selective sparing of the prostate gland while supporting other androgen-dependent tissues. MENT acetate implants were administered for 24 wk to 16 hypogonadal men, randomly allocated to 1 or 2 implants (groups I and II, respectively; releasing approximately 400 microg/d x implant). Hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit were maintained during MENT treatment. Prostate volume fell in group I and to a small, but statistically nonsignificant, degree in group II; the level of prostate-specific antigen fell significantly in both. Lumbar spine bone mineral density decreased in both groups. Sexual behavior and erectile function declined in group I, but were maintained in group II. Thus, overall, one MENT implant appeared to provide subphysiological androgen replacement. The 2-implant dose of MENT was able to maintain most androgen-dependent functions, except bone mass, and there was evidence to support selective sparing of the prostate gland. These results demonstrate for the first time in humans the selectivity of MENT in tissues dependent on 5 alpha-reductase. In addition, our data are consistent with the importance of adequate estrogenicity as part of the necessary spectrum of activity of an androgen for replacement therapy in men.

Publication Types:
  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

PMID: 12788888 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
See some Transgender papers. Unfortunately, most part of them are related only to sex and HIV-AIDS. It is obvious, medicine is not, up until now alerted, by the fact that transgendered people have a lot of health care specific necessities.
1: Berreth ME. Related Articles, Links
Abstract Nursing care of transgendered older adults. Implications from the literature.
J Gerontol Nurs. 2003 Jul;29(7):44-9. Review.
PMID: 12874939 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
2: Jackson PA. Related Articles, Links
No abstract Thai research on male homosexuality and transgenderism and the cultural limits of Foucaultian analysis.
J Hist Sex. 1997 Jul;8(1):52-85. No abstract available.
PMID: 11619530 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
3: Sebastian C. Related Articles, Links
Abstract Transgenderism and the AIDS epidemic.
Posit Aware. 1999 May-Jun;10(3):57.
PMID: 11366771 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
4: Docter RF, Fleming JS. Related Articles, Links
Abstract Measures of transgender behavior.
Arch Sex Behav. 2001 Jun;30(3):255-71.
PMID: 11330116 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
5: Lombardi EL, van Servellen G. Related Articles, Links
Abstract Building culturally sensitive substance use prevention and treatment programs for transgendered populations.
J Subst Abuse Treat. 2000 Oct;19(3):291-6. Review.
PMID: 11027900 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
6: Lombardi EL, van Servellen G. Related Articles, Links
Abstract Correcting deficiencies in HIV/AIDS care for transgendered individuals.
J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care. 2000 Sep-Oct;11(5):61-9. Review.
PMID: 11022332 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
7: Surgenor LJ, Fear JL. Related Articles, Links
Abstract Eating disorder in a transgendered patient: a case report.
Int J Eat Disord. 1998 Dec;24(4):449-52.
PMID: 9813772 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
See some Crossdressing papers. Unfortunately, most part of them are related only to sex fantasies, as if the crossdressing was only a fantasy and not a real problem for the victim.
1: Mengay DH. Related Articles, Links
Abstract The sodomitical muse: Fanny Hill and the rhetoric of crossdressing.
J Homosex. 1992;23(1-2):185-98.
PMID: 1431072 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
2: Steiner BW. Related Articles, Links
No abstract From Sappho to Stand: historical perspective on crossdressing and cross gender.
Can J Psychiatry. 1981 Nov;26(7):502-6. No abstract available.
PMID: 7028241 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
See some more papers about AR activation, and also some papers with transsexual resources
1: Tan HM. Related Articles, Links
Free Full Text Penile prosthesis implantation in a transsexual neophallus.
Asian J Androl. 2000 Dec;2(4):304-6.
PMID: 11202422 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
2: Safak T, Yuksel E, Ozcan G, Gursu G. Related Articles, Links
No abstract Utilization of the breast for penile reconstruction in a transsexual.
Plast Reconstr Surg. 1995 Nov;96(6):1483-5. No abstract available.
PMID: 7480262 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
3: Burgess HE, Shousha S. Related Articles, Links
Abstract An immunohistochemical study of the long-term effects of androgen administration on female-to-male transsexual breast: a comparison with normal female breast and male breast showing gynaecomastia.
J Pathol. 1993 May;170(1):37-43.
PMID: 8326458 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
4: Vesely J, Barinka L, Santi P, Berrino P, Muggianu M. Related Articles, Links
Abstract Reconstruction of the penis in transsexual patients.
Acta Chir Plast. 1992;34(1):44-54.
PMID: 1375425 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
5: Godano A, Sapino A, Pietribiasi F, Bussolati G. Related Articles, Links
Abstract [Effects of long-term administration of androgens on the breast in transsexual women]
Arch Ital Urol Nefrol Androl. 1990 Mar;62(1):121-3. Italian.
PMID: 2141705 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
6: Pritchard TJ, Pankowsky DA, Crowe JP, Abdul-Karim FW. Related Articles, Links
Abstract Breast cancer in a male-to-female transsexual. A case report.
JAMA. 1988 Apr 15;259(15):2278-80.
PMID: 2832627 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
7: Lim SM. Related Articles, Links
Abstract Surgery in transsexuals.
Ann Acad Med Singapore. 1986 Jan;15(1):122-6.
PMID: 3707030 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
61: Parks LG, Lambright CS, Orlando EF, Guillette LJ Jr, Ankley GT, Gray LE Jr. Related Articles, Links
Abstract Masculinization of female mosquitofish in Kraft mill effluent-contaminated Fenholloway River water is associated with androgen receptor agonist activity.
Toxicol Sci. 2001 Aug;62(2):257-67.
PMID: 11452138 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
62: Flugge G, Kramer M, Fuchs E. Related Articles, Links
Abstract Chronic subordination stress in male tree shrews: replacement of testosterone affects behavior and central alpha(2)-adrenoceptors.
Physiol Behav. 2001 Jun;73(3):293-300.
PMID: 11438354 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
63: Turner KJ, Morley M, MacPherson S, Millar MR, Wilson JA, Sharpe RM, Saunders PT. Related Articles, Links
Abstract Modulation of gene expression by androgen and oestrogens in the testis and prostate of the adult rat following androgen withdrawal.
Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2001 Jun 10;178(1-2):73-87.
PMID: 11403897 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
64: Westberg L, Baghaei F, Rosmond R, Hellstrand M, Landen M, Jansson M, Holm G, Bjorntorp P, Eriksson E. Related Articles, Links
Free Full Text Polymorphisms of the androgen receptor gene and the estrogen receptor beta gene are associated with androgen levels in women.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Jun;86(6):2562-8.
PMID: 11397855 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
65: Sultan C, Paris F, Terouanne B, Balaguer P, Georget V, Poujol N, Jeandel C, Lumbroso S, Nicolas JC. Related Articles, Links
Abstract Disorders linked to insufficient androgen action in male children.
Hum Reprod Update. 2001 May-Jun;7(3):314-22. Review.
PMID: 11392378 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
66: Shiba K, Hamaguchi T, Kataoka K, Yamaguchi Y, Handa H, Adachi K. Related Articles, Links
Abstract Cloning of the hamster androgen receptor gene.
J Dermatol Sci. 2001 Jul;26(3):163-8.
PMID: 11390200 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
67: Avila DM, Zoppi S, McPhaul MJ. Related Articles, Links
Abstract The androgen receptor (AR) in syndromes of androgen insensitivity and in prostate cancer.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2001 Jan-Mar;76(1-5):135-42. Review.
PMID: 11384871 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
68: Suzuki K, Fukabori Y, Nakazato H, Hasumi M, Matsui H, Ito K, Kurokawa K, Yamanaka H. Related Articles, Links
Abstract Novel amino acid substitutional mutation, tyrosine-739-aspartic acid, in the androgen receptor gene in complete androgen insensitivity syndrome.
Int J Androl. 2001 Jun;24(3):183-8.
PMID: 11380707 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
69: Thompson J, Saatcioglu F, Janne OA, Palvimo JJ. Related Articles, Links
Free Full Text Disrupted amino- and carboxyl-terminal interactions of the androgen receptor are linked to androgen insensitivity.
Mol Endocrinol. 2001 Jun;15(6):923-35.
PMID: 11376111 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
70: Weihua Z, Makela S, Andersson LC, Salmi S, Saji S, Webster JI, Jensen EV, Nilsson S, Warner M, Gustafsson JA. Related Articles, Links
Free in PMC A role for estrogen receptor beta in the regulation of growth of the ventral prostate.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 May 22;98(11):6330-5.
PMID: 11371645 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
71: Zmuda JM, Cauley JA, Kuller LH, Ferrell RE. Related Articles, Links
Abstract A common promotor variant in the cytochrome P450c17alpha (CYP17) gene is associated with bioavailability testosterone levels and bone size in men.
J Bone Miner Res. 2001 May;16(5):911-7.
PMID: 11341336 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
72: Raivio T, Palvimo JJ, Dunkel L, Wickman S, Janne OA. Related Articles, Links
Free Full Text Novel assay for determination of androgen bioactivity in human serum.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Apr;86(4):1539-44.
PMID: 11297580 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
73: Zhu DW, Cantin L, Nahoum V, Rehse P, Luu-The V, Labrie F, Breton R, Lin SX. Related Articles, Links
Abstract Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of the human type 3 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase at 1.8 A resolution.
Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2001 Apr;57(Pt 4):589-91.
PMID: 11264591 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
74: Boehmer AL, Brinkmann AO, Nijman RM, Verleun-Mooijman MC, de Ruiter P, Niermeijer MF, Drop SL. Related Articles, Links
Free Full Text Phenotypic variation in a family with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome explained by differences in 5alpha dihydrotestosterone availability.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Mar;86(3):1240-6.
PMID: 11238515 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
75: Copelli SB, Lumbroso S, Audran F, Pellizzari EH, Heinrich JJ, Cigorraga SB, Sultan C, Chemes HE. Related Articles, Links
Free Full Text A novel E153X point mutation in the androgen receptor gene in a patient with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome.
Asian J Androl. 1999 Jun;1(1-2):73-7.
PMID: 11225909 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
76: Ohsako S, Miyabara Y, Nishimura N, Kurosawa S, Sakaue M, Ishimura R, Sato M, Takeda K, Aoki Y, Sone H, Tohyama C, Yonemoto J. Related Articles, Links
Abstract Maternal exposure to a low dose of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) suppressed the development of reproductive organs of male rats: dose-dependent increase of mRNA levels of 5alpha-reductase type 2 in contrast to decrease of androgen receptor in the pubertal ventral prostate.
Toxicol Sci. 2001 Mar;60(1):132-43.
PMID: 11222880 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
77: Xia SJ, Hao GY, Tang XD. Related Articles, Links
Free Full Text Androgen receptor isoforms in human and rat prostate.
Asian J Androl. 2000 Dec;2(4):307-10.
PMID: 11202423 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
78: Gryngarten M, Bedecarras P, Ayuso S, Bergada C, Campo S, Escobar ME. Related Articles, Links
Abstract Clinical assessment and serum hormonal profile in prepubertal hypertrichosis.
Horm Res. 2000;54(1):20-5.
PMID: 11182631 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
79: Bamman MM, Shipp JR, Jiang J, Gower BA, Hunter GR, Goodman A, McLafferty CL Jr, Urban RJ. Related Articles, Links
Free Full Text Mechanical load increases muscle IGF-I and androgen receptor mRNA concentrations in humans.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Mar;280(3):E383-90.
PMID: 11171591 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
80: Ogata T, Matsuo M, Muroya K, Koyama Y, Fukutani K. Related Articles, Links
Abstract 47,XXX male: A clinical and molecular study.
Am J Med Genet. 2001 Feb 1;98(4):353-6. Review.
PMID: 11170081 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]