See here some scientific abstracts from Medline.
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See below some wonderful paper abstracts and sometimes FREE FULL PAPERS!.
See here some, in my opinion, the most important studies and
results about AR hormone binding and activation, showing the testosterone-DHT
different action over AR. That result is very important, because DHT is the
important factor to masculinize genitals, and testosterone, to masculinize
brains. If they may have a different action, they may give different and divergent
results in genital and brain tissues. Also here a paper showing the variation of
the hormone action in different tissues AR.
Differential regulation of testosterone vs. 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone by selective androgen response elements.
Hsiao PW, Thin TH, Lin DL, Chang C.
Department of Pathology, University of Rochester, New York, USA.
There are two major physiological androgens, testosterone (T), and 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), which induce different responses in mammals. These androgens regulate the target gene transcription via binding to and activating the same androgen receptor (AR). The molecular mechanisms that differ between these two very close androgens through the same AR protein to target the distinct genomic responses remain unknown. Using yeast genetic selection, we identified two kinds of androgen response elements (ARE), which could respond differentially to T vs. DHT. These two AREs also show different T- vs. DHT-induced AR transactivation in mammalian Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells in terms of copy number and comparisons with the classic mouse mammary tumor virus ARE. Together, our results suggest that the selective ARE sequence may play an important role in the differential T- vs. DHT-induced AR transactivation.
Institute of Biotechnology and Department of Life Science, National Dong Hwa University, 974, Hualien, Taiwan.
Androgens, principally testosterone and 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone, play critical roles in the development and growth of the male reproductive and nonreproductive systems. Their biological actions are mediated by the androgen receptor (AR), a ligand-dependent transcription factor, belonging to the nuclear receptor superfamily. These androgen-AR complexes interact with various factors (e.g. coactivators or corepressors) to modulate transcription of androgen target genes via specific DNA sequences. Many lines of evidence have also correlated AR with several mammalian disorders. Finally, recent advances in molecular biology have significantly impacted our knowledge of the role of AR in mammals. The aim of this review is to present recent emerging aspects of AR action.
Evidence for tissue selectivity of the synthetic androgen 7 alpha-methyl-19-nortestosterone in hypogonadal men.
Anderson RA, Wallace AM, Sattar N, Kumar N, Sundaram K.
Medical Research Council Human Reproductive Sciences Unit, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom EH16 4SB. email@example.com
The potent synthetic androgen 7 alpha-methyl-19-nortestosterone (MENT) is resistant to 5 alpha-reductase but is a substrate for aromatase. It may therefore offer selective sparing of the prostate gland while supporting other androgen-dependent tissues. MENT acetate implants were administered for 24 wk to 16 hypogonadal men, randomly allocated to 1 or 2 implants (groups I and II, respectively; releasing approximately 400 microg/d x implant). Hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit were maintained during MENT treatment. Prostate volume fell in group I and to a small, but statistically nonsignificant, degree in group II; the level of prostate-specific antigen fell significantly in both. Lumbar spine bone mineral density decreased in both groups. Sexual behavior and erectile function declined in group I, but were maintained in group II. Thus, overall, one MENT implant appeared to provide subphysiological androgen replacement. The 2-implant dose of MENT was able to maintain most androgen-dependent functions, except bone mass, and there was evidence to support selective sparing of the prostate gland. These results demonstrate for the first time in humans the selectivity of MENT in tissues dependent on 5 alpha-reductase. In addition, our data are consistent with the importance of adequate estrogenicity as part of the necessary spectrum of activity of an androgen for replacement therapy in men.
Randomized Controlled Trial
PMID: 12788888 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
See some Transgender papers. Unfortunately, most part of them are related
only to sex and HIV-AIDS. It is obvious, medicine is not, up until now alerted,
by the fact that transgendered people have a lot of health care specific
Thai research on male homosexuality and transgenderism and the cultural limits of Foucaultian analysis. J Hist Sex. 1997 Jul;8(1):52-85. No abstract available. PMID: 11619530 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
An immunohistochemical study of the long-term effects of androgen administration on female-to-male transsexual breast: a comparison with normal female breast and male breast showing gynaecomastia. J Pathol. 1993 May;170(1):37-43. PMID: 8326458 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Masculinization of female mosquitofish in Kraft mill effluent-contaminated Fenholloway River water is associated with androgen receptor agonist activity. Toxicol Sci. 2001 Aug;62(2):257-67. PMID: 11452138 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Chronic subordination stress in male tree shrews: replacement of testosterone affects behavior and central alpha(2)-adrenoceptors. Physiol Behav. 2001 Jun;73(3):293-300. PMID: 11438354 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Modulation of gene expression by androgen and oestrogens in the testis and prostate of the adult rat following androgen withdrawal. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2001 Jun 10;178(1-2):73-87. PMID: 11403897 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Polymorphisms of the androgen receptor gene and the estrogen receptor beta gene are associated with androgen levels in women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Jun;86(6):2562-8. PMID: 11397855 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
A common promotor variant in the cytochrome P450c17alpha (CYP17) gene is associated with bioavailability testosterone levels and bone size in men. J Bone Miner Res. 2001 May;16(5):911-7. PMID: 11341336 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of the human type 3 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase at 1.8 A resolution. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2001 Apr;57(Pt 4):589-91. PMID: 11264591 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Phenotypic variation in a family with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome explained by differences in 5alpha dihydrotestosterone availability. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Mar;86(3):1240-6. PMID: 11238515 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
A novel E153X point mutation in the androgen receptor gene in a patient with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome. Asian J Androl. 1999 Jun;1(1-2):73-7. PMID: 11225909 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Maternal exposure to a low dose of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) suppressed the development of reproductive organs of male rats: dose-dependent increase of mRNA levels of 5alpha-reductase type 2 in contrast to decrease of androgen receptor in the pubertal ventral prostate. Toxicol Sci. 2001 Mar;60(1):132-43. PMID: 11222880 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]