Library Selection 12 - Bhakti Ananda Goswami & Wal Torres ... and the Copernican revolution of man and woman definition

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Library Selection 12 - Bhakti Ananda Goswami & Wal Torres ... and the Copernican revolution of man and woman definition
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We received that email from Bhakti Ananda Goswami, who is fighting for a new definition about what is a man and what is a woman. He is , as we are, looking for a Revolution, a Copernican or Kantian revolution, for Man and Woman definition. As in Astronomy and Phylosophy, that discussion is a question of Points of Reference. Now we need to think about that dialectic evolution also for defining Man and Woman. For Man and Woman definition, we are in Ptolomaic ages...we are in Aristotelian ages....we need now, having so new results about the brain and gender identity, to renew the concept of WHAT IT IS TO BE A MAN OR A WOMAN. Bhakti Ananda Goswami has a more religious point of view, and Wal Torres has a more brain centered one....but both arrive to the same final goal....to redefine what it is to be a man or a woman. With the agreement from Bhakti Ananda Goswami, we publish here all his email to us... and we hope future commuinications among us will be published soon.

De: Bhakti Ananda Goswami
Para: marthafreitas@uol.com.br
Data: 13/10/2003 21:16
Assunto: YOUR SITE REFERENCED IN ARTICLE ON LEGALLY DEFINING MAN OR WOMAN IN THE USA

Subject: DEFINING MAN OR WOMAN : REFERENCES INCLUDING SOUTH AFRICAN STUDIES

 
 
Subject: Playing God by Trying to Legislate Some Unworkable Definition of 'Man' and 'Woman'...With NLM Medical Journal References

Subject: VNN ARTICLE WITH OLYMPIC AND NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE REFERENCES

BATTLING THE MATERIALISTIC IMPERSONALISM OF SEXISM...


Now Try to Define a 'Man' or a 'Woman'...

The Self is Infinitely More Than the Sum of Some Bodily Parts

 

By Bhakti Ananda Goswami 

c 9-18-2003

 

Jerry Falwell and his cadre of inexperienced and ill-informed homophobic marriage-defenders are at it again.  Their current “One Man and One Woman” Marriage Initiative in the U.S.A. ( http://www.onemanonewoman.com/  ) is picking up steam, and we should all welcome it, because ultimately medical challenges to such a law will prove that it is impossible to use any medical criteria for justly defining a 'man' or 'woman'.  The many kinds of intersex persons, including sex-reversed persons (born that way), who cannot fit any chromosomal or anatomical definition of male or female will have to have their constitutional rights upheld.  The reality of such persons will never permit a simple chromosomal, gonadal or genital definition of male or female, man or woman.  By trying to force a legal medical definition of 'man' and 'woman' for marriage purposes, Falwell and his followers are in for a real shock from God and Mother Nature!  Already the International Olympic Committee has entangled itself in a nightmarish legal mess, by trying to define 'male' and 'female' for athletic competition legal purposes.  The Committee had to stop genetic testing, due to the suprizing number of intersex persons who were being unjustly kept out of the Olympic Games, because they could not pass the Committee's 'sex' testing!  

"After decades of dispute over not only the process, but also the procedure of gender testing in the Olympic Games, a January 1999 decision has been ratified to end this testing altogether. This was a ratification of the resolution passed in 1996 at the International Olympic Committee World Conference on Women and Health to find a way to discontinue the practice. "

 

The reality is that life on Earth is much more complicated than the simple, common (mis) understanding of male or female so passionately believed-in by persons like Mr. Falwell and the promoters of this amendment.  Hoping to influence the moral decline of our Nation, these marriage defenders mean well, but are making a terrible mistake based on a belief in human sexual dimorphism that is not based in reality.  Neither is their misunderstanding Biblically based.  You will not find sex chromosomes or mixed-sex gonads etc. mentioned anywhere in the Bible. The sad fact is that their idea of male and female is based on bad out-dated 19th century and early 20th century science.  They are still living in the early scientific era when it was wrongly assumed that animals and humans came in only two models, with only two kinds and expressions of sex chromosomes...XY=male and XX=female.  Now modern science KNOWS that this is simply not true!    

 

Consequently the key to the failure of this misguided marriage-protection legislation is the fact that no purely biological simple definition of male or female will ever suffice.  XX and XY chromosomes cannot be used to legally define every human, because not all humans are merely XX or XY.  Some are chromosomally XXY, XO or Mosaic, having various chromosomal patterns in different tissues throughout their bodies.  Mosaic persons can test XX, XY, XXY, XO or something else in various parts of their bodies!  Then there are naturally sex-reversed people whose bodies are the opposite of the standard issue.  Such persons have  XX chromosomes with male anatomy, or XY chromosomes with female anatomy.  Neither can gonads (ovaries or testes) or other reproductive parts be used to define every person’s sex, because some otherwise normal men have a uterus (Persistent Mullerian Duct Syndrome) and some intersex chromosomal 'women' have a functional penis and testes.  There are even completely "sex-reversed" (this is the actual medical term!) people who have normal-looking bodies that are the opposite of their sex chromosomes.  Complete-AIS XY 'genetic males' have normal female anatomy and function sexually just like normal women, and Complete-CAH XX 'genetic females' have normal external male anatomy.  Naturally sex-reversed people have always been sex-assigned and raised as their anatomical sex, not their so-called chromosomal or genetic sex.  There are also otherwise normal looking and feeling men and women who have been born without any genitals, as well as intersex persons who were born with both a functional vagina and a functional phallus.  Furthermore, some intersex people are so-called “true hermaphrodites” (a medical label that is being phased-out as offensive), because they have ovotestes or both testicular and ovarian tissue in their mixed-sex gonads.  Although most intersex persons are infertile, some can and do biologically parent children or successfully give birth.  In 2001, when I was compiling a survey of the best and most recent research on sex differentiation and intersex conditions in vertebral species (including our own), I read a number of biology and medical journal reports on intersex and sex-reversed animals and humans who had fathered or given birth to healthy off-spring.  Yes, there are XY women who have given birth to normal children.  So there are not only reproductively successful XY sex-reversed females in other species, but there are even fertile and infertile (with treatment) XY human females who have given birth! 

 

Such cases can be studied on-line at the National Library of Medicine http://www.nlm.nih.gov/  ) Entrez PubMed journal search site http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi This search site is very easy to use and accesses over 12 million scientific journal citations, going all the way back to the 1960s.  Hundreds of scientific papers on intersex and sex-reversal in humans and other species can be read at this site.  The U. S. National Library of Medicine is the leading institution of its kind in the world.  Just a search of 'environmental estrogens' and related terms will pull up hundreds of world-class studies on modern pollution-caused intersex conditions in animals and man.   The feminization of ALL SPECIES due to environmental estrogen mimicking compounds is a very serious world problem.  It has been called a crisis and an epidemic.  In some badly polluted areas, the incidence of XY feminized intersex has doubled in the last 20 years.  So more and more people are being born every day who cannot be sex-assigned according to the typical XY-male type of differentiation.  What will Mr. Falwell and his 'man and woman' marriage crusaders want the legal establishment to do with these souls?    

 

There are more and more intersex humans that break all of the rules of any possible simple and dimorphic legal-medical “male and female” sex assignment.  This means that any rule used to define “one man and one woman” for marriage purposes can and will be eventually challenged and struck down, at the nation’s highest court, by the scientific facts presented in defense of intersex persons who will have to challenge any simple dimorphic definitions of 'male and female' or 'man and woman', to secure their most basic human rights.  Seeing such a legal nightmare on the legislative horizon, more and more informed people in the government will try to block this doomed legal project.   The institution of Christian Marriage cannot be "defended" by denying a vast number of intersexed human beings their very right to exist.  

 

So, let the ill-informed bring on this amendment, and let science respond with the question: “OK, how will we define ‘male’ and ‘female’?"  The ensuing struggle will be very educational!  " I welcome it, as it will for once and for all end the legal-medical tyranny of anatomical parts over people who do not fit neatly into our society’s fantasy of a simple, sexually dimorphic species.

 

This amendment is exactly what is needed to bring the scientific, medical and human rights legal issues of assigning sex to national and global attention.  Simplistic definitions of male and female, or man and woman, are the fantasy of inexperienced and poorly educated people like Mr. Falwell.  Such prejudiced people would benefit from some volunteer service that exposes them to the real medical, legal and pastoral needs of intersex and sex-reversed people and their families. In the real world, human beings come in a continuum of complex biological conditions that range from the common standard issue XX=female and XY=male, through an extremely complex continuum of intersex states, all the way to the naturally sex-reversed XX-male and XY-female.  A large number of humans exist in every state possible and viable in between 'normal' male and female, and chromosomally sex-reversed male and female.  In fact, estimates for various population groups range from 1 in 2000 to 1 in 100 for persons born with some atypical sex differentiation or intersex condition.   That is a lot of people who will not fit into any one-size-fits-all legal-medical definition of 'male and female'.   Such intersex and sex-reversed persons are fully human and have basic God-given human rights too!   As it is now, there is an enormous medical ethics debate going on about how to 'treat' and assign sex to the increasingly large number of intersex persons being born every day.  At some point this medical ethics problem and the legal issue of defining 'man' and 'woman' for marriage purposes will merge.  When they do, it will stimulate a new era for human rights education and activism. 

 

Education regarding the medical-legal impossibility of defining male and female is therefore the key to a human rights centered outcome in this amendment struggle.  The sanctity of sacramental marriage (in any faith) cannot be preserved by denying the existence and basic human rights of part of the human race.    

 

For a copy of the Topical Index to my Sex Differentiation Study entitled "Improving Medical and Pastoral Responses To The Needs Of Intersex Persons...A Resource: Sex Differentiation and Behavior, An Introduction To Animal And Human Studies "  (Compiled by David Sherman, August 2001) please write bhakti.eohn@verizon.net 

 

 
SOME REFERENCES TO MY ABOVE LETTER REGARDING THE MEDICAL DEFINITION OF A MAN AND A WOMAN
 
Citation of these references is not an endorsement of the research or treatment methodologies used.
 
UNITED STATES NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE SCIENTIFIC JOURNAL CITATIONS
 
CAN XX AND XY 'SEX CHROMOSOMES' BE USED TO DEFINE EVERY HUMAN BEING'S 'SEX', ASSIGNING THE SEX OF 'MALE' TO EVERYONE WITH XY CHROMOSOMES AND THE SEX OF 'FEMALE' TO EVERYONE WITH XX CHROMOSOMES?  NO, BECAUSE NOT ALL HUMANS HAVE SIMPLY XX OR XY CHROMOSOMES, AND SOMETIMES AN XY PERSON HAS A FEMALE BODY AND AN XX PERSON HAS A MALE BODY.  IN BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE THIS IS CALLED "SEX-REVERSAL", AND IT OCCURS NOT ONLY IN HUMANS, BUT IN MANY SPECIES FROM FISH AND REPTILES TO BIRDS AND MAMMALS, INCLUDING THE 'GREAT APES' AND HUMANS.   BELOW ARE SOME EXAMPLES OF INDIVIDUAL HUMAN PATIENTS, AND CLASSES OF ATYPICAL OR INTERSEX CONDITIONS CONSIDERED FORMS OF "SEX-REVERSAL", WHICH ARE FOUND IN BOTH ANIMALS AND HUMAN BEINGS.   THESE ARE ALL FROM TWO SINGLE TERM SEARCHES, WHICH YIELDED 60 AND 234 JOURNAL CITATIONS RESPECTIVELY.  I ONLY LOOKED AT ABOUT THE FIRST 20 AND 60.
 
THE FIRST TERM WAS "XY PREGNANCY" AND THE SECOND WAS "SEX-REVERSAL".   NOT GIVEN BELOW ARE REFERENCES TO THE ENORMOUS NUMBER OF STUDIES, WHICH HAVE BEEN DONE ON INTERSEX AND SEX-REVERSAL IN PRIMATES.  A SECTION ON PRIMATE STUDIES IS INCLUDED IN MY 2001 SURVEY OF THE LITERATURE ON SEX DIFFERENTIATION AND SEX DIMORPHIC BEHAVIOR IN VERTEBRATES. 
 
SEX-REVERSED XY WOMEN
 
SUCCESSFUL PREGNANCIES IN SEX-REVERSED XY WOMEN, WHO HAD NO EGGS OF THEIR OWN. 
 
 
Successful pregnancy in a patient with a 46,XY karyotype.
Fertil Steril. 2002 Aug;78(2):419-20.
PMID: 12137885 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
 
Pregnancy in a woman with a Y chromosome after removal of an ovarian dysgerminoma.
Gynecol Oncol. 2000 Dec;79(3):519-21.
PMID: 11104633 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
 
Subsequent successful pregnancy and delivery after intracytoplasmic sperm injection in a patient with XY gonadal dysgenesisms.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2000 Jan;88(1):101-2.
PMID: 10659926 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
 
Two successful pregnancies in a 46,XY patient. Fertility and Endocrinology Centre, In Vitro Fertilisation Unit, Lister Hospital, London, UK.
Hum Reprod. 1997 Jul;12(7):1434-5.
PMID: 9262272 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
 
Multifetal pregnancy in a gonadal dysgenesis mosaic.
Obstet Gynecol. 1990 Sep;76(3 Pt 2):502-4.
PMID: 2381633 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
 
 
 
 
IN THESE TWO CASES, XY CHROMOSOMES WERE DETECTED IN WOMEN WHO WERE FERTILE (WHO HAD VIABLE EGGS OF THEIR OWN).  IN THE FIRST CASE, XY CHROMOSOMES WERE DETECTED AFTER HER PREGNANCY.  IN THE SECOND CASE, THE WOMAN IS DESCRIBED AS BEING FERTILE, HAVING XY CHROMOSOMES AND A FEMALE "PHENOTYPE", WHICH MEANS ANATOMY.   
 
De Moor G, De Bock G, Noens L, De Bie S.
A new case of human chimerism detected after pregnancy: 46,XY karyotype in the lymphocytes of a woman.
Acta Clin Belg. 1988;43(3):231-5.
PMID: 3414310 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
 
Chimerism in a fertile woman with 46,XY karyotype and female phenotype.
Hum Reprod. 2001 Jan;16(1):56-58.
PMID: 11139536 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
 
 
 
 
HERE ARE SOME OTHER REFERENCES TO HUMAN SEX-REVERSAL
 
SPECIFICALLY REGARDING XX SEX-REVERSED MEN
Molecular analysis of SRY gene in Brazilian 46,XX sex reversed patients: absence of SRY sequence in gonadal tissue.
Med Sci Monit. 2001 Mar-Apr;7(2):238-41.
PMID: 11257728 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
 
Autosomal XX sex reversal caused by duplication of SOX9.
Am J Med Genet. 1999 Dec 3;87(4):349-53.
PMID: 10588843 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
 
Clinical and molecular analysis of XX sex reversed patients.
J Urol. 1998 Sep;160(3 Pt 2):1169-72; discussion 1178.
PMID: 9719302 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
 
XX sex reversal: molecular analysis of the SRY/ZFY regions.
J Urol. 1997 Sep;158(3 Pt 2):1305-7.
PMID: 9258201 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
 
 
HUMAN SEX-REVERSAL IN GENERAL, AND XY FEMALE SEX REVERSAL (MORE COMMONLY STUDIED THAN XX MALE SEX-REVERSAL)
Battle of the sexes: new insights into genetic pathways of gonadal development.
Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc. 2003;114:51-63; discussion 64-5. Review.
PMID: 12813911 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE
 
Disorders of gonadal development.
Semin Reprod Med. 2002 Aug;20(3):189-98. Review.
PMID: 12428199 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE
 
Molecular genetics of sex determination.
Semin Reprod Med. 2002 Aug;20(3):157-68. Review.
PMID: 12428196 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE
 
Expression of the human SRY protein during development in normal male gonadal and sex-reversed tissues.
J Exp Zool. 2001 Nov 1;290(6):607-15.
PMID: 11748609 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
 
Identifying genes for male sex determination in humans.
J Exp Zool. 2001 Nov 1;290(6):567-73. Review.
PMID: 11748605 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
 
Vilain E.  SEE ABOVE
Genetics of sexual development.
Annu Rev Sex Res. 2000;11:1-25. Review.
PMID: 11351829 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
 
SRY protein is expressed in ovotestis and streak gonads from human sex-reversal.
Cytogenet Cell Genet. 2000;91(1-4):212-6.
PMID: 11173859 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
 
A new submicroscopic deletion that refines the 9p region for sex reversal.
Genomics. 2000 May 1;65(3):203-12.
PMID: 10857744 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
 
The human doublesex-related gene, DMRT2, is homologous to a gene involved in somitogenesis and encodes a potential bicistronic transcript.
Genomics. 2000 Mar 1;64(2):179-86.
PMID: 10729224 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
 
The region on 9p associated with 46,XY sex reversal contains several transcripts expressed in the urogenital system and a novel doublesex-related domain.
Genomics. 2000 Mar 1;64(2):170-8.
PMID: 10729223 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
 
SEX REVERSAL GENE NOT EXPRESSED IN THE FATHER, BUT EXPRESSED IN THE CHILD (SHOWS THAT THE 'EXPRESSION' OR OUTCOME OF A GENE MUTATION IS NOT ALWAYS PREDICTABLE ! )
A novel sex-determining region on Y (SRY) missense mutation identified in a 46,XY female and also in the father.
Endocr J. 1999 Oct;46(5):735-9.
PMID: 10670762 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
 
A novel sex-determining region on Y (SRY) nonsense mutation identified in a 45,X/47,XYY female.
Fertil Steril. 1999 Jul;72(1):167-9.
PMID: 10428169 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
 
Mammalian sex determination: from gonads to brain.
Mol Genet Metab. 1998 Oct;65(2):74-84. Review.
PMID: 9787099 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
 
A gene involved in XY sex reversal is located on chromosome 9, distal to marker D9S1779.
Am J Hum Genet. 1998 Sep;63(3):794-802.
PMID: 9718346 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
 
REFERS TO ONE STUDY OF 45 SEX-REVERSED XY FEMALES
Three novel SRY mutations in XY gonadal dysgenesis and the enigma of XY gonadal dysgenesis cases without SRY mutations.
Cytogenet Cell Genet. 1998;80(1-4):188-92.
PMID: 9678356 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
 
FIVE SISTERS, TWO OF THEM SEX-REVERSED XY FEMALES
Paternal somatic and germ-line mosaicism for a sex-determining region on Y (SRY) missense mutation leading to recurrent 46,XY sex reversal.
Fertil Steril. 1997 Apr;67(4):675-9.
PMID: 9093193 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
 
 
 
EXAMPLES OF ABSTRACTS REGARDING HUMAN SEX-REVERSAL AND XY FEMALE FERTILITY AND PREGNANCY
 
1: Fertil Steril. 2002 Aug;78(2):419-20.

Successful pregnancy in a patient with a 46,XY karyotype.

Selvaraj K, Ganesh V, Selvaraj P.

Fertility Research Center, G.G. Hospital, Tamil Nadu, India. kamala@giasmd01.vsnl.net.in

OBJECTIVE: To report a case of successful pregnancy in a patient with 46,XY karyotype with primary ovarian failure. DESIGN: Case report. SETTING: Fertility Research Center, G.G. Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. PATIENT(S): A 27-year-old woman with hypoplastic uterus, normal fallopian tubes on both sides, and gonadal dysgenesis. INTERVENTION(S): Chromosomal analysis, diagnostic laparoscopy, donor oocyte program, gamete intrafallopian transfer, and gonadectomy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Response to hormone replacement therapy and the probability of achieving a pregnancy by a tubal procedure. RESULT(S): Treatment was successful, and the patient delivered a live baby. CONCLUSION(S): A hypoplastic uterus of patients with the 46,XY karyotype can be stimulated by the use of cyclical steroid therapy to accommodate pregnancy and facilitate tubal procedures in patients with normal fallopian tubes.

PMID: 12137885 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
 
 
 
1: Gynecol Oncol. 2000 Dec;79(3):519-21. Related Articles, Links

Pregnancy in a woman with a Y chromosome after removal of an ovarian dysgerminoma.

Tanaka Y, Fujiwara K, Yamauchi H, Mikami Y, Kohno I.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki City, Japan.

BACKGROUND: It appears to be a general belief that pregnancy might be impossible in women with the XY karyotype. Therefore, it is recommended that patients with dysgerminoma of the ovary associated with the XY karyotype should undergo a bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. CASE: We report an extremely rare case of a true hermaphrodite with a 20% 46,XX/80% 46,XY karyotype who became pregnant after removal of an ovarian dysgerminoma. The patient had a completely normal female phenotype. A dysgerminoma with ovotestis was found in the right ovary. Two courses of chemotherapy following a right salpingo-oophorectomy were carried out. Nine months later she became pregnant and delivered a healthy male infant. CONCLUSION: A unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy followed by combination chemotherapy can be the treatment of choice for any woman who wishes to preserve her capacity for conception at the time of operation for dysgerminoma of the ovary. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

PMID: 11104633 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
 
 
 
1: Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2000 Jan;88(1):101-2. Related Articles, Links
Click here to read 
Subsequent successful pregnancy and delivery after intracytoplasmic sperm injection in a patient with XY gonadal dysgenesisms.

Dirnfeld M, Bider D, Abramovicia H, Calderon I, Blumenfeld Z.

Carmel Hospital, Rambam Medical Center, Technion, Israel.

Report of a rare case of subsequent twin delivery after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) into donated oocytes in a 30-year-old woman with a diagnosis of XY dysgenesis, who underwent a gonadectomy at the age of 13 years. Her husband suffers from severe oligo-astheno-terato-spermia.

PMID: 10659926 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
 
 
 
1: Hum Reprod. 1997 Jul;12(7):1434-5. Related Articles, Links

Two successful pregnancies in a 46,XY patient.

Kan AK, Abdalla HI, Oskarsson T.

Fertility and Endocrinology Centre, In Vitro Fertilisation Unit, Lister Hospital, London, UK.

Two successful pregnancies (singleton followed by twins) following ovum donation/in-vitro fertilization in a 46,XY woman have been studied. Although similar cases have previously been presented: in a pure XY patient and in a 45,X/46,XY patient, this case is one in which a subsequent successful pregnancy has resulted. In such patients, the rate of Caesarean section appears to be increased, and we postulate that the hypoplastic nature of the uterus, although able to respond quite well to both exogenous and endogenous hormones to accept and maintain a pregnancy, may lack the capability to respond fully in labour by dilating appropriately.

PMID: 9262272 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
 
 
 
1: Acta Clin Belg. 1988;43(3):231-5. Related Articles, Links

A new case of human chimerism detected after pregnancy: 46,XY karyotype in the lymphocytes of a woman.

De Moor G, De Bock G, Noens L, De Bie S.

PMID: 3414310 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
 
 
1: Obstet Gynecol. 1990 Sep;76(3 Pt 2):502-4. Related Articles, Links

Multifetal pregnancy in a gonadal dysgenesis mosaic.

Bardeguez AD, De Ziegler D, Weiss G.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-New Jersey Medical School, Newark.

A successful triplet gestation in a 45,X/46,XY woman is presented. A previously hypoplastic uterus was prepared for implantation by exogenous hormone replacement. Conception was achieved through in vitro fertilization of donor oocytes and transfer of four embryos into a hormonally primed endometrium. This case illustrates that some women with 45,X/46,XY karyotype can have a successful triplet pregnancy. Therefore, a conservative approach during gonadectomy in patients with a Y chromosome may be warranted.

PMID: 2381633 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

 

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J Pediatr Surg 2001 Feb;36(2):397-399

Management of the African child with true hermaphroditism.
Wiersma R.
Department of Paediatric Surgery, University of Natal, Durban, South Africa.

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: A disproportionally high incidence of true hermaphroditism is seen among the South African black people, constituting 51% of children in local study on all intersex types. These patients were different from the commonly reported patients with true hermaphroditism in that the common gonad was a mixed type of ovotestis, making the management of such patients problematic. The aim of this study was to establish a protocol for the management for children with true hermaphroditism in Southern Africa. METHODS: Seventy-one children, over a 16-year period, were diagnosed with true hermaphroditism. After a decision on the child gender status, part of the management consisted of excision of all discordant and ovotesticular gonadal tissue. The histology of these gonads was then compared with the initial biopsy results. RESULTS: The histology of the initial gonadal biopsies showed that 55% of all gonads were ovotestes, 26% were ovaries, and 19% testes. Thirty-five patients had 44 gonads excised. Comparing the 2 sets of histology showed that the initial histology of the discordant gonads was insufficient to show all the ovotesticular tissue in 22% of gonads. Initial biopsies that showed testicular tissue only were misdiagnosed in 82% of cases. CONCLUSION: It is suggested that, in Southern African true hermaphrodites, all ovotestes, discordant gonads, and all gonads that show only testicular tissue be excised as part of the initial corrective management.
PMID: 11172444 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Am J Med Genet 2000 Aug 28;93(5):417-420

Partially deleted SRY gene confined to testicular tissue in a 46,XX true hermaphrodite without SRY in leukocytic DNA.
Jimenez AL, Kofman-Alfaro S, Berumen J, Hernandez E, Canto P, Mendez JP, Zenteno JC.
Departamento de Genetica, Hospital General de Mexico-Facultad de Medicina, UNAM, Mexico, D.F., Mexico.

True hermaphroditism is an uncommon form of intersexuality in which testicular and ovarian tissue develop in the same individual. Most true hermaphrodites are 46,XX and lack SRY, the testis-determining gene. We describe results of molecular studies performed in a 46,XX true hermaphrodite SRY-negative in DNA from blood leukocytes but SRY-positive in DNA obtained from the testicular portion of the ovotestis. Surprisingly, the SRY identified in gonadal DNA carries a partial deletion at the 5' end of the gene. Our patient is the first case of a naturally occurring deletion within the SRY ORF (with a normal HMG box) and provides a new explanation for the abnormal gonadal development observed in 46,XX true hermaphrodites. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
PMID: 10951467 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 1998 Jul;11(4):519-524

True hermaphrodites in the southeastern region of Brazil: a different cytogenetic and gonadal profile.
Guerra Junior G, de Mello MP, Assumpcao JG, Morcillo AM, Marini SH, Baptista MT, Paiva e Silva RB, Marques-de-Faria AP, Maciel-Guerra AT.
Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Sex ambiguity may be due to several disorders of gonadal differentiation, including true hermaphroditism (TH), as well as male and female pseudohermaphroditism. Although TH is a rare cause of intersex in Europe and North America, in Africa it presents one of the highest frequencies. The 46,XX karyotype has been found in the majority of the reported patients (70.6%), and aberrations in the sex chromosomes have been observed in about 22% of the cases. The 46,XY karyotype has been described as less frequent. Herein we describe ten cases of TH which have been diagnosed over the last 7 years, six lateral TH, two unilateral TH, and two cases of ovotestes with absent contralateral gonad. From a total of 18 gonads analyzed, there were 8 testes, 6 ovaries and 4 ovotestes. Nine subjects had originally a male sex assignment, and in three cases this was reverted to female. Four cases had a 46,XY karyotype. Additional sex chromosome aberrations had been found in four different cases [two 46,XX/46,XY, one 45,X/47,XYY, one 46,X,del(Yq)]. A 46,XX karyotype was found in only two individuals, and both were SRY negative. Our preliminary data, especially on the constitution of chromosomes and gonads, indicate marked differences from those in the literature.
PMID: 9777572 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Am J Hum Genet 1998 Apr;62(4):937-940

Polymorphic detection of a parthenogenetic maternal and double paternal contribution to a 46,XX/46,XY hermaphrodite.
Giltay JC, Brunt T, Beemer FA, Wit JM, van Amstel HK, Pearson PL, Wijmenga C.
Department of Human Genetics, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands. Giltay@pobox.ruu.nl

True hermaphroditism in humans usually is associated with a 46,XX karyotype or with mosaicism in which admixtures of cells with an XX and an XY karyotype are seen. However, the mechanisms that cause such mosaicisms are poorly understood. To date, with rare exceptions, analyses of hermaphrodites have been limited mostly to cytogenetic investigations. In this report, we describe a 5-year-old patient with true hermaphroditism and a 46,XX/46,XY karyotype (ratio 38:12) in lymphocytes, suggesting involvement of two fertilization events. Microsatellite DNA polymorphisms distributed throughout the genome were analyzed, to investigate the origin of the cell lines concerned. The results are consistent with double paternal and single maternal genetic contributions. Possible mechanisms that would explain these findings are discussed. The most likely mechanism involves a single haploid ovum dividing parthenogenetically into two haploid ova, followed by double fertilization and fusion of the two zygotes into a single individual, at the early embryonic stage.
PMID: 9529354 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

J Med Genet 1998 Jan;35(1):17-22

An autosomal or X linked mutation results in true hermaphrodites and 46,XX males in the same family.
Slaney SF, Chalmers IJ, Affara NA, Chitty LS.
Mothercare Unit of Clinical Genetics and Fetal Medicine, Institute of Child Health, London, UK.

It is now well established that the differentiation of the primitive gonad into the testis during early human embryonic development depends on the presence of the SRY gene. However, the existence of total or partial sex reversal in 46,XX males with genetic mutations not linked to the Y chromosome suggests that several autosomal genes acting in association with SRY may contribute to normal development of the male phenotype. We report a family in which four related 46,XX subjects with no evidence of Y chromosome DNA sequences underwent variable degrees of male sexual differentiation. One 46,XX male had apparently normal male external genitalia whereas his brother and two cousins had various degrees of sexual ambiguity and were found to be 46,XX true hermaphrodites. The presence of male sexual development in genetic females with transmission through normal male and female parents indicates that the critical genetic defect is most likely to be an autosomal dominant mutation, the different phenotypic effects arising from variable penetrance. Other autosomal loci have been implicated in male sexual development but the genetic mechanisms involved are unknown. In this family there may be an "activating" mutation which mimics the initiating role of the SRY gene in 46,XX subjects.
PMID: 9475089 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Braz J Med Biol Res 1996 Jun;29(6):743-748

Molecular analysis of sex determination in sex-reversed and true hermaphroditism.
Copelli SB, Bergada C, Billerbeck AE, Goldberg AC, Kalil J, Damiani D, Targovnik HM.
Catedra de Genetica y Biologia Molecular, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina.

The SRY (sex region of Y) gene determines testis formation but not all cases of sex reversal in humans can be explained by alterations in this gene. We studied one 46,XY female, four 46,XX males, and nine true hermaphrodites (TH): three with an XY and six with an XX chromosomal constitution. The SRY gene was identified in the XX males and the TH with a Y chromosome but was not demonstrated in the XY female and the six XX TH. The Y-heterochromatin region was also identified in one 46,XX male, indicating a low grade mosaicism undetected by cytogenetics. The amplification of the amelogenin gene showed the presence of a 977-bp band that belongs to the short arm of chromosome X in all patients but the absence of a 780-bp band of the short arm of chromosome Y in three 46,XX males and in all the 46,XX TH. These studies demonstrate that the molecular study of sex-reversed patients and TH will help to understand the complex mechanisms of sex determination. The SRY gene is involved but other genes on the X chromosome and autosomes still remain to be studied.
PMID: 9070386 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Am J Med Genet 1996 May 17;63(2):348-355

Molecular analysis in true hermaphrodites with different karyotypes and similar phenotypes.
Torres L, Lopez M, Mendez JP, Canto P, Cervantes A, Alfaro G, Perez-Palacios G, Erickson RP, Kofman-Alfaro S.
Servicio Genetica, H.G.M. Ssa. Facultad de Medicina, U.N.A.M., Mexico, D.F., Mexico.

True hermaphroditism is characterized by the development of ovarian and testicular tissue in the same individual. Mullerian and Wolffian structures are usually present, and external genitalia are often ambiguous. The most frequent karyotype in these patients is 46,XX or various forms of mosaicism, whereas 46,XY is very rarely found. The phenotype in all these subjects is similar. We studied 10 true hermaphrodites. Six of them had a 46,XX chromosomal complement: 3 had been reared as males and 3 as females. The other 4 patients were mosaics: 3 were 46,XX/46,XY and one had a 46,XX/47,XXY karyotype. One of the 46,XX/46,XY mosaics was reared as a female, whereas the other 3 mosaics were reared as males. The sex of assignment in the 10 patients depended only on labio-scrotal differentiation. Molecular studies in 46,XX subjects documented the absence of Y centromeric sequences in all cases, arguing against hidden mosaicism. One patient presented Yp sequences (ZFY+, SRY+), which contrast with South African black 46,XX true hermaphrodites in whom no Y sequences were found. Molecular analysis in the subjects with mosaicism demonstrated the presence of Y centromeric and Yp sequences confirming the presence of a Y chromosome. Gonadal development, endocrine function, and phenotype in the 10 patients did not correlate with the presence of a Y chromosome or Y-derived sequences in the genome, confirming that true hermaphroditism is a heterogeneous condition.
PMID: 8725784 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Hum Genet 1996 May;97(5):596-598

SRY-negative true hermaphrodites and an XX male in two generations of the same family.
Ramos ES, Moreira-Filho CA, Vicente YA, Llorach-Velludo MA, Tucci S Jr, Duarte MH, Araujo AG, Martelli L.
Departamento de Genetica, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Two 46,XX true hermaphrodites and one XX male without genital ambiguities are reported. They coexist in two generations of the same pedigree, with paternal transmission and in the absence of SRY (sex-determining region, Y chromosome). These familial cases provide evidence to support the hypothesis that these disorders are alternative manifestations of the same genetic defect, probably an autosomal dominant mutation (with incomplete penetrance) or an X-linked mutation (limited by the presence of the Y chromosome).
PMID: 8655137 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Am J Med Genet 1995 Jan 2;55(1):53-56

XX true hermaphroditism in southern African blacks: exclusion of SRY sequences and uniparental disomy of the X chromosome.
Spurdle AB, Shankman S, Ramsay M.
Department of Human Genetics, South African Institute for Medical Research, Johannesburg.

A molecular investigation of 16 Bantu-speaking Black XX true hermaphrodites was undertaken in an attempt to determine the cause of the disorder. Y-specific sequences, including sequences mapping to the sex-determining region of the Y, were shown to be absent from lymphocyte tissue of all 16 patients tested. Y chromosome sequences were also absent from the ovarian and testicular components of both ovotestes of a single XX true hermaphrodite, thus excluding gonadal mosaicism involving Y chromosome sequences. Since there is evidence for Xp genes involved in testis determination/differentiation, uniparental disomy of the X chromosome was investigated in 14 XXTH families. Uniparental disomy was excluded in 12 of the 14 families, and isodisomy was excluded in the remaining two cases.
PMID: 7702097 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

CONCLUSIONS FROM THE LONGEST STUDY ON SEX HORMONES, THE BRAIN AND BEHAVIOR (PARTIAL ABSTRACT ONLY)

Do sex differences in the brain explain sex differences in the hormonal induction of reproductive behavior? What 25 years of research on the Japanese quail tells us.
Horm Behav. 1996 Dec;30(4):627-61. Review.
PMID: 9047287 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
 
 
 
SEX-REVERSAL IN OTHER SPECIES
 
SOME ANIMAL SPECIES HAVE REPRODUCTIVELY SUCCESSFUL XY FEMALES !   ALSO AMONG THE ABSTRACTS BELOW, YOU WILL FIND RESEARCH RELEVANT TO SEX-SIGNALING-RESPONSES AND SAME-SEX-PAIRING STUDIES.
 
 
 
SOME NLM PubMed SEARCH RESULTS ...SOME MORE EXAMPLES
 
 
 
1: Park EH, Taketo T. Related Articles, Links
Abstract Onset and Progress of Meiotic Prophase in the Oocytes in the B6.YTIR Sex-Reversed Mouse Ovary.
Biol Reprod. 2003 Aug 6 [Epub ahead of print]
PMID: 12904311 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
2: Vaillant S, Guemene D, Dorizzi M, Pieau C, Richard-Mercier N, Brillard JP. Related Articles, Links
Abstract Degree of sex reversal as related to plasma steroid levels in genetic female chickens (Gallus domesticus) treated with Fadrozole.
Mol Reprod Dev. 2003 Aug;65(4):420-8.
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5: Nanda I, Hornung U, Kondo M, Schmid M, Schartl M. Related Articles, Links
Abstract Common spontaneous sex-reversed XX males of the medaka Oryzias latipes.
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6: Bugno M, Klukowska J, Slota E, Tischner M, Switonski M. Related Articles, Links
Abstract A sporadic case of the sex-reversed mare (64,XY; SRY-negative): molecular and cytogenetic studies of the Y chromosome.
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PMID: 12559464 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
7: Smith CA, Katz M, Sinclair AH. Related Articles, Links
Abstract DMRT1 is upregulated in the gonads during female-to-male sex reversal in ZW chicken embryos.
Biol Reprod. 2003 Feb;68(2):560-70.
PMID: 12533420 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
8: Shimasaki Y, Kitano T, Oshima Y, Inoue S, Imada N, Honjo T. Related Articles, Links
Abstract Tributyltin causes masculinization in fish.
Environ Toxicol Chem. 2003 Jan;22(1):141-4.
PMID: 12503757 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
9: Bianchi NO. Related Articles, Links
Abstract Akodon sex reversed females: the never ending story.
Cytogenet Genome Res. 2002;96(1-4):60-5.
PMID: 12438781 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
12: Kirankumar S, Pandian TJ. Related Articles, Links
Abstract Effect on growth and reproduction of hormone immersed and masculinized fighting fish Betta splendens.
J Exp Zool. 2002 Nov 1;293(6):606-16.
PMID: 12410610 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
13: Bakker J, Honda S, Harada N, Balthazart J. Related Articles, Links
Abstract Sexual partner preference requires a functional aromatase (cyp19) gene in male mice.
Horm Behav. 2002 Sep;42(2):158-71.
PMID: 12367569 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
14: Shibata K, Takase M, Nakamura M. Related Articles, Links
Abstract The Dmrt1 expression in sex-reversed gonads of amphibians.
Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2002 Jul;127(3):232-41.
PMID: 12225764 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
15: Quillet E, Aubard G, Queau I. Related Articles, Links
Abstract Mutation in a sex-determining gene in rainbow trout: detection and genetic analysis.
J Hered. 2002 Mar-Apr;93(2):91-9.
PMID: 12140268 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
16: Milnes MR Jr, Roberts RN, Guillette LJ Jr. Related Articles, Links
Abstract Effects of incubation temperature and estrogen exposure on aromatase activity in the brain and gonads of embryonic alligators.
Environ Health Perspect. 2002 Jun;110 Suppl 3:393-6.
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17: Pailhoux E, Vigier B, Vaiman D, Servel N, Chaffaux S, Cribiu EP, Cotinot C. Related Articles, Links
Abstract Ontogenesis of female-to-male sex-reversal in XX polled goats.
Dev Dyn. 2002 May;224(1):39-50.
PMID: 11984872 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
18: Pailhoux E, Mandon-Pepin B, Cotinot C. Related Articles, Links
Abstract Mammalian gonadal differentiation: the pig model.
Reprod Suppl. 2001;58:65-80. Review.
PMID: 11980203 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
19: Lund TD, West TW, Tian LY, Bu LH, Simmons DL, Setchell KD, Adlercreutz H, Lephart ED. Related Articles, Links
Free in PMC Visual spatial memory is enhanced in female rats (but inhibited in males) by dietary soy phytoestrogens.
BMC Neurosci. 2001;2(1):20. Epub 2001 Dec 17.
PMID: 11801187 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
20: Renfree MB, Coveney D, Shaw G. Related Articles, Links
Abstract The influence of estrogen on the developing male marsupial.
Reprod Fertil Dev. 2001;13(4):231-40. Review.
PMID: 11800162 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
21: Schelling C, Pienkowska A, Arnold S, Hauser B, Switonski M. Related Articles, Links
Abstract A male to female sex-reversed dog with a reciprocal translocation.
J Reprod Fertil Suppl. 2001;57:435-8.
PMID: 11787187 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
22: Vaillant S, Dorizzi M, Pieau C, Richard-Mercier N. Related Articles, Links
Abstract Sex reversal and aromatase in chicken.
J Exp Zool. 2001 Dec 1;290(7):727-40.
PMID: 11748621 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
23: Pailhoux E, Vigier B, Vaiman D, Schibler L, Vaiman A, Cribiu E, Nezer C, Georges M, Sundstrom J, Pelliniemi LJ, Fellous M, Cotinot C. Related Articles, Links
Abstract Contribution of domestic animals to the identification of new genes involved in sex determination.
J Exp Zool. 2001 Dec 1;290(7):700-8.
PMID: 11748618 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
26: Pailhoux E, Parma P, Sundstrom J, Vigier B, Servel N, Kuopio T, Locatelli A, Pelliniemi LJ, Cotinot C. Related Articles, Links
Abstract Time course of female-to-male sex reversal in 38,XX fetal and postnatal pigs.
Dev Dyn. 2001 Nov;222(3):328-40.
PMID: 11747069 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
27: Vaillant S, Magre S, Dorizzi M, Pieau C, Richard-Mercier N. Related Articles, Links
Abstract Expression of AMH, SF1, and SOX9 in gonads of genetic female chickens during sex reversal induced by an aromatase inhibitor.
Dev Dyn. 2001 Oct;222(2):228-37.
PMID: 11668600 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
28: Belaid B, Richard-Mercier N, Pieau C, Dorizzi M. Related Articles, Links
Abstract Sex reversal and aromatase in the European pond turtle: treatment with letrozole after the thermosensitive period for sex determination.
J Exp Zool. 2001 Sep 15;290(5):490-7.
PMID: 11555856 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
29: Coveney D, Shaw G, Renfree MB. Related Articles, Links
Free Full Text Estrogen-induced gonadal sex reversal in the tammar wallaby.
Biol Reprod. 2001 Aug;65(2):613-21.
PMID: 11466233 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
30: Papoulias DM, Noltie DB, Tillitt DE. Related Articles, Links
Abstract Effects of methyl testosterone exposure on sexual differentiation in medaka, Oryzias latipes.
Mar Environ Res. 2000 Jul-Dec;50(1-5):181-4.
PMID: 11460688 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
31: Tsang TE, Khoo PL, Jamieson RV, Zhou SX, Ang SL, Behringer R, Tam PP. Related Articles, Links
Abstract The allocation and differentiation of mouse primordial germ cells.
Int J Dev Biol. 2001;45(3 Spec No):549-55.
PMID: 11417898 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
34: Agulnik AI, Harrison WR, Bishop CE. Related Articles, Links
Abstract Smcy transgene does not rescue spermatogenesis in sex-reversed mice.
Mamm Genome. 2001 Feb;12(2):112-6.
PMID: 11210179 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
36: Nagler JJ, Bouma J, Thorgaard GH, Dauble DD. Related Articles, Links
Abstract High incidence of a male-specific genetic marker in phenotypic female chinook salmon from the Columbia River.
Environ Health Perspect. 2001 Jan;109(1):67-9.
PMID: 11171527 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
37: Adkins-Regan E, Wade J. Related Articles, Links
Abstract Masculinized sexual partner preference in female zebra finches with sex-reversed gonads.
Horm Behav. 2001 Feb;39(1):22-8.
PMID: 11161880 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
38: Dournon C, Membre H, Bautz A. Related Articles, Links
Abstract Sex reversal of germ cell gametogenesis in chimeras of Pleurodeles waltl (urodele amphibian): genetic and immunogenetic demonstration using tolerance or rejection of skin grafts.
Dev Growth Differ. 2001 Feb;43(1):97-106.
PMID: 11148455 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
39: Scholz S, Gutzeit HO. Related Articles, Links
Abstract 17-alpha-ethinylestradiol affects reproduction, sexual differentiation and aromatase gene expression of the medaka (Oryzias latipes).
Aquat Toxicol. 2000 Oct 1;50(4):363-373.
PMID: 10967398 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
40: Wong J, Luckers L, Okawara Y, Pelletier R, Taketo T. Related Articles, Links
Free Full Text Follicular development and atresia in the B6.Y(TIR) sex-reversed mouse ovary.
Biol Reprod. 2000 Sep;63(3):756-62.
PMID: 10952917 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
41: Stavnezer AJ, McDowell CS, Hyde LA, Bimonte HA, Balogh SA, Hoplight BJ, Denenberg VH. Related Articles, Links
Abstract Spatial ability of XY sex-reversed female mice.
Behav Brain Res. 2000 Jul;112(1-2):135-43.
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44: Fagundes V, Christoff AU, Scalzi-Martin J, Hozier J, Moreira-Filho CA, Yonenaga-Yassuda Y. Related Articles, Links
Abstract X;Y translocation revealed by chromosome microdissection and FISH in fertile XY females in the Brazilian rodent Akodon montensis.
Cytogenet Cell Genet. 2000;88(1-2):124-9.
PMID: 10773685 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
45: Kitano T, Takamune K, Nagahama Y, Abe SI. Related Articles, Links
Abstract Aromatase inhibitor and 17alpha-methyltestosterone cause sex-reversal from genetical females to phenotypic males and suppression of P450 aromatase gene expression in Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).
Mol Reprod Dev. 2000 May;56(1):1-5.
PMID: 10737961 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
48: Hubler M, Hauser B, Meyers-Wallen VN, Arnold S. Related Articles, Links
Abstract Sry-negative XX true hermaphrodite in a Basset hound.
Theriogenology. 1999 May;51(7):1391-403.
PMID: 10729102 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
49: Amleh A, Smith L, Chen H, Taketo T. Related Articles, Links
Abstract Both nuclear and cytoplasmic components are defective in oocytes of the B6.Y(TIR) sex-reversed female mouse.
Dev Biol. 2000 Mar 15;219(2):277-86.
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52: Kitano T, Takamune K, Kobayashi T, Nagahama Y, Abe SI. Related Articles, Links
Abstract Suppression of P450 aromatase gene expression in sex-reversed males produced by rearing genetically female larvae at a high water temperature during a period of sex differentiation in the Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).
J Mol Endocrinol. 1999 Oct;23(2):167-76.
PMID: 10514554 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
53: Suzuki S. Related Articles, Links
Abstract Androgenic gland hormone is a sex-reversing factor but cannot be a sex-determining factor in the female crustacean isopods Armadillidium vulgare.
Gen Comp Endocrinol. 1999 Sep;115(3):370-8.
PMID: 10480988 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
54: Parma P, Pailhoux E, Cotinot C. Related Articles, Links
Free Full Text Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis of genes involved in gonadal differentiation in pigs.
Biol Reprod. 1999 Sep;61(3):741-8.
PMID: 10456852 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
55: Krisfalusi M, Cloud JG. Related Articles, Links
Abstract Gonadal sex reversal in triploid rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).
J Exp Zool. 1999 Sep 1;284(4):466-72.
PMID: 10451424 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
56: Wennstrom KL, Blesius F, Crews D. Related Articles, Links
Abstract Volumetric analysis of sexually dimorphic limbic nuclei in normal and sex-reversed whiptail lizards.
Brain Res. 1999 Aug 14;838(1-2):104-9.
PMID: 10446322 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
59: Sheehan DM, Willingham E, Gaylor D, Bergeron JM, Crews D. Related Articles, Links
Abstract No threshold dose for estradiol-induced sex reversal of turtle embryos: how little is too much?
Environ Health Perspect. 1999 Feb;107(2):155-9.
PMID: 9924012 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
60: Jimenez R, Burgos M. Related Articles, Links
Abstract Mammalian sex determination: joining pieces of the genetic puzzle.
Bioessays. 1998 Sep;20(9):696-9. Review.
PMID: 9819558 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
61: Vilain E, McCabe ER. Related Articles, Links
Abstract Mammalian sex determination: from gonads to brain.
Mol Genet Metab. 1998 Oct;65(2):74-84. Review.
PMID: 9787099 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
64: Jamieson RV, Zhou SX, Wheatley SC, Koopman P, Tam PP. Related Articles, Links
Abstract Sertoli cell differentiation and Y-chromosome activity: a developmental study of X-linked transgene activity in sex-reversed X/XSxra mouse embryos.
Dev Biol. 1998 Jul 15;199(2):235-44.
PMID: 9698443 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
67: Nagamine CM, Capehart J, Carlisle C, Chang D. Related Articles, Links
Abstract Ovotestes in B6-XXSxr sex-reversed mice.
Dev Biol. 1998 Apr 1;196(1):24-32.
PMID: 9527878 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
69: Wallace H, Wallace BM, Badawy GM. Related Articles, Links
Abstract Lampbrush chromosomes and chiasmata of sex-reversed crested newts.
Chromosoma. 1997 Dec;106(8):526-33.
PMID: 9426285 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
70: Amleh A, Taketo T. Related Articles, Links
Abstract Live-borns from XX but not XY oocytes in the chimeric mouse ovary composed of B6.Y(TIR) and XX cells.
Biol Reprod. 1998 Feb;58(2):574-82.
PMID: 9475416 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
72: Hunt PA, Worthman C, Levinson H, Stallings J, LeMaire R, Mroz K, Park C, Handel MA. Related Articles, Links
Abstract Germ cell loss in the XXY male mouse: altered X-chromosome dosage affects prenatal development.
Mol Reprod Dev. 1998 Feb;49(2):101-11.
PMID: 9444653 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
73: Abinawanto, Zhang C, Saito N, Matsuda Y, Shimada K. Related Articles, Links
Abstract Identification of sperm-bearing female-specific chromosome in the sex-reversed chicken.
J Exp Zool. 1998 Jan 1;280(1):65-72.
PMID: 9437853 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
74: Vanderhyden BC, Macdonald EA, Merchant-Larios H, Fernandez A, Amleh A, Nasseri R, Taketo T. Related Articles, Links
Abstract Interactions between the oocyte and cumulus cells in the ovary of the B6.Y(TIR) sex-reversed female mouse.
Biol Reprod. 1997 Sep;57(3):641-6.
PMID: 9283002 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
75: Reddy PP, Papenhausen PR, Suh YM, Riddick LM, Calvano CJ, Mandell J. Related Articles, Links
Abstract XX sex reversal: molecular analysis of the SRY/ZFY regions.
J Urol. 1997 Sep;158(3 Pt 2):1305-7.
PMID: 9258201 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
76: Pask A, Toder R, Wilcox SA, Camerino G, Graves JA. Related Articles, Links
Abstract
The candidate sex-reversing DAX1 gene is autosomal in marsupials: implications for the evolution of sex determination in mammals.
Genomics. 1997 May 1;41(3):422-6.
PMID: 9169141 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
 
 
78: Williams J, Partington BP, Smith B, Hedlund CS, Law JM. Related Articles, Links
Abstract
Pyovagina and stump pyometra in a neutered XX sex-reversed beagle: a case report.
J Am Anim Hosp Assoc. 1997 Jan-Feb;33(1):83-90.
PMID: 8974032 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
 
 
 
80: Amleh A, Ledee N, Saeed J, Taketo T. Related Articles, Links
Abstract
Competence of oocytes from the B6.YDOM sex-reversed female mouse for maturation, fertilization, and embryonic development in vitro.
Dev Biol. 1996 Sep 15;178(2):263-75.
PMID: 8812128 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE